Fundamental human rights

The Strategy should respect and be consistent with fundamental

human rights.

The Strategy should recognise the fact that rights that people have

offline must also be protected online. It should respect universally agreed

fundamental human rights, including, but not limited to, the ones found in

the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International


Guide to Developing a National Cybersecurity Strategy 2nd Edition


Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as relevant multilateral or

regional legal frameworks.

Attention should be paid to freedom of expression, privacy of communications,

and personal data protection. In particular, the Strategy should avoid

facilitating the practice of arbitrary, unjustified or otherwise unlawful

surveillance, interception of communications, or processing of personal data.

In ensuring that the State is able to take action to meet its legitimate interests

while still respecting individuals’ human rights, the Strategy should ensure that,

where applicable, surveillance, interception of communications, and collection

of data are conducted within the context of a specific investigation or legal

case, authorised by the relevant national authority and on the basis of a public,

precise, comprehensive, and non-discriminatory legal framework enabling

effective oversight, procedural safeguards, and remedies.

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